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8000BCE - 600CE

Foundations and Ancient History.

Around 8000 B.C.E. traits of civilizations began to appear in river valleys across Eurasia and in Africa. With the Neolithic(Agricultural) Revolution and the Bronze Age, former hunters and gatherers began to settle along rivers. The five traits that classify these emerging settlements as civilizations are:

1. Advanced Cities
2. Advanced Technologies
3. Skilled Workers
4. Complex Institutions
5. Writing/Recordkeeping System

River Valley Civilizations
Harrapan India
Xia and Shang China
Tigris & Euphrates River Valley
Nile river valley
Indus River Valley
Yellow River Valley
Between 6000 and 3500 B.C.E.
Between 6000 and 3200 B.C.E.
~2500 B.C.E.
Between 2200 and 1600 B.C.E.
System of Writing
Hieroglyphics and Hieratic
Political Structure
City-States ruled by God Kings
Dynasties, Kingdom ruled by Pharohs
Empire ruled by Rajas
Empire ruled by Emporers with the Mandate of Heaven
Religious Beliefs
Polytheistic- Nature Gods; Built Ziggarauts; Led by High Priests and God-Kings
Polytheistic- Nature Gods; Built Pyramids; Led by High Priests and Pharohs
Polytheistic- Hiduism, Later Buddhism; Built Stupas, Statues,and Temples; Led by Gurus and Monks.
Polytheistic- Nature Gods, Ancestor Veneration, Oracle Bones.
Important Contributions
1st Irrigation, 1st Cities, 1st Writing, 1st Story, 1st Law Code, 1st use of Bronze, 12-Based Number System
Precursor to Julian Calendar (365 days and 12 months per year, 30 days per month+ 5 extra), 1st paper (Papyrus), Pyramids
Idea of Zero, Cotton, Sugar
Iron Casting, Pottery, Astronomy, Musical Instruments

With the decline of some of the original river valley civilizations, new societies and empires began to emerge.

Later Civilizations
1600-146 B.C.E.
800 B.C.E.-600 C.E.
2000 B.C.E.-200 C.E.
700 B.C.E.-650 C.E.
321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.
1112 B.C.E.-618 C.E.
Empires and Dynasties
Minoan, Mycenaeans, Dorians, City-States (Athens, Sparta, Troy, Thebes), Macedonian
Roman Republic, Roman Empire
Caananite, Phoenician, Israelite
Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid
Maurya, Gupta
Zhou, Qin, Han, Jin, Sui
Greek Mythology
Roman Mythology, Later Christianity c.40 C.E.
Judaism and Christianity
Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, Manichaeanism, and Bahá'í
Hinduism and Buddhism
Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism
Physics, Geometry, Architecture, Art, Alphabet, Philosophy, Democracy
Military, Roads, Aqueducts, Latin, Medicine, Law, Architecture, Literature, Art, Spread of Christianity
Phoenician Alphabet, Religions
Windmills, Rugs
Literature, Music, Art, Architecture, and Philosophy
Paper, Silk Road, Medicine, Clocks

The Roman Empire

Perhaps the greatest empire of this time period was the Roman. After the murder of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C.E. the Roman Republic was transformed into the Roman Empire by Caesar Augustus, Julius's nephew. The empire prospered for centuries until the splits in the 300's. The Western Roman Empire began its decline which continued until its final collapse in the late 500's due to the plague, the constant internal disputes, and the barbarian invasions.